Tapestries of higher ed, Hayhoe, in Chinese Education problems policies and prospects Epstein

p 109 history of Chinese u - official schools, taixue Hanlin academy on one hand, shuyuan, freedom and scholarly inquiry from the bottom, on the other hand. cai yuanpei patriotic school, yenan unis, tradition from shuyuan, nonformal teaching and learning, free debate etc.

tendency by leaders to select foreign models .Japanese pattern early in century to preserve confcian. natioanlist leaders invited euoean paterns. selection of Soviet model in 1952 for total reorganization.

111 Cai Yuanpei Humboldt university as model of Beida 1917. American pragmatic approaches. broadening and opening up of higher curriculum from 1978-1988 that was more profound than any other period since the 1920-30s 

{Hayhoe, 1996}

SU for China represents the West, not the East.its educ trad rooted in European, notably France. Socialist construction - a gignatic machine with separate and highly specialized parts coordinated through central planning, intellectually close to 19th French rationalism.

university: symbol of autonomy and academic freedom

Chinese: intellectual authority and scholarly monopoly of bureaucratic power vs. fragile autonomy and intellectual freedom of shuyuan  and other nonformal institutions

impact of French higher ed on Russia. HE system that emerged in SU in 1930s very close in spirit to 19th C Fench pattern. 

Basil Bernstein: integrated code vs collection code (curriculum)

classification - strength of boundary maintenance between different specialist subjects or fields of knowledge in the curriculum

framing: pedagogical syle of eacher, and nature of relationship betw. teacher and student. 

collection code: strong classification stron gframing: French

strong classification weak framing: English

weak classification weak framing: US

Soviet: Strong classification and framing