Zhongguo Jiaoyu Tongshi 6juan

xuexu sulian jiaoyu jingyan (83)

to speed up construction of socialist society, learn from Soviet. 

83: Mao mentioned in "Lun Sulian Zhengfu" we should use Russia as example, in 1945. 

p84: 30.12.1949 副部 of jiaoyu said have to learn from Sulian, is main direction of developing new educational system.

Renmin Daxue announced 1.17.1950 in 关于中国人民大学实施计划的决定 - combining teaching and practice, experience of Soviet, and national situation of China ·zhongguo guoqing.

86: The first expert group arrived in October 1949, visiting Shanghai and Beijing, and giving talks on the Soviet system.

87: in 1950, 对于苏联高等教育研究指导组   jiaoyuanzu 

88: 高等教育部 established. Russian consultant. 福民 had big influence on 院系调整, 专业设置,教学计划,教学大纲 very big influence. Last expert left August 1960. 

89: establishment of renmin daxue. to train 财经,政治 and 外交... 华北大学 has a tradition from education in the liberated area. 华北人民革命大学 and 政法干校 - create a brand new university, with Soviet as a model. Liu Shaoqi intimately involved. 

90 organization of uni, like russian, jiaowuchu etc. invite 50 Russian experts to teach. Training of interpreters, office of translation.  was a huge investment for a young country, in 1950, Renmin Daxue represented 20% of educational budget for all of China (成仿吾:战火中的大学人民教育出版社1982年版,158-159

91 from 1950-1957 totally invited 98 people. more than any other university. they:

- helped train teachers. until 1952, they first lectured to teachers, who then went to teach classes. they also taught some classes directly. after 1954, help research on teaching etc. develop pedagogical theory

- teach grad students. taught 2574 students in 7 years (politics, economics). after 1956, the local teachers took over the task. 

- guide teachers in designing lectures and teaching material. 101 handouts were developed under their guidance. 


- help establish a higher education system, and teaching methodology. 

- night class in marxism

1954, meeting to popularize lessons learnt. many unis want to send teachers to renda, or collaborate with research there. 

Harbin Industrial University

the second example, next to renda. deal with science and technology. based on old foundations, not brand new. built 1920, then called Harbin Chinese-Russian School, used Russian. 1922 Harbin Chinese-Russian University. 

Study Russia, train engineers. train teachers for techincal subjects for all of China. model of new polytechnic U. most students were Russian descendents. 1951-1957 from 26 russian Us, 67 experts. train grad students, fix the education plan for each speciality. create models of teaching for undergrad courses. 19 majors created. 66 handouts. 


861 higher ed experts from 1949 to 1959. 


Hochschulzugang in der Volksrepublic China

214 schwerpunktschulen - was a practice before the 1949, sporadically. was developed to include caders and intellectuals, best teachers taught there, much higher university rates. highly criticized and disbanded during cultural revolution. in 1978 start again. Deng Xiaoping: have to stand on two legs - raising quality in general, and schwerpunk primary, secondary, and universities". people are different, so education should be as well. also a pilot function for normal schools. 


Education in contemporary China, UNESCO PROAP Hunan Education Publishing House 1990

organization of teaching in HEIs, EUrope and US: departments are basic teaching units, no specialities at lower levels, major disciplines begin after first stage of study. Soviet Union: specialities in a department, basic teaching units. This was imported to China in 1952. 

437 initially specialities were insalled that were modelled after those of the Soviet Union, and then teaching plans were prepared for all of them. general blueprints fo cultuvation of students, proven through practice that teaching plans are quite necessary to the successful running of the specialities.(437)  in 1950s, MoE drew up teaching plans for some specialities, guiding documents for all of higher ed institutions in organizing their teaching programs. Late 1970s-1980s, MoE stipulate some unified principles, but no longer making unified teaching plans. Unis and colleges carry out proper teaching plans according to their own condition.

442 Teaching chains, or main teaching formats, include several links

1. teaching in the classroom, major link

2. exercise classes and seminars

3. experiment classes

4. projects

5. teaching and productive practice. 

6. graduation proects

7. examination and tests

445 many colleges and unis conduct thier work on the principles and directions made by the leading department at a higher level and in compliance with the teaching plans of some universities which have been approved by the departments concerned at a higher level. basically according to the "the same model"

447 teaching materials. experts were organized early on to compile unified teaching materials, which played a certain positive role from 1950s to 1960s. now schools can choose to use them or nt. 

448-449 very few teaching materials remained from old China, at Nat'l Conference on HE in 1950 suggest that teaching materials and reference books be translated and compiled. by october 1957, 1869 teaching publication sand mimeographed sheets been/being compiled/translated. 

458 appraisal of HE has just started. some primary tests have conducted at selected points in a few provinces and cities. only appraisal of teaching has been conducted.


1. intrschool appraisal of teaching conducted in Shanghai

SHanghai Higher Educational Bureau began appraisal in some areas to raise quality of teaching, strengthen teaching of basic courses and improve training of practical ability in second half of 1983. all 45 HEI in Shanghai, unified test of courses on history of Chinese rev'l, pol econ, phil, Eng, uni Chinese, high math, gen phys. lot's of other exams

through the above activities, teaching problems were caught and measures for improvement studies to promote the reform of teaching.

2. higher ed bureau of jiangsu province conducted mutual examinations of quality of teaching in normal colleges and universities


mutual exams in November 1984. first since founding of PRC, 25 days, 50 people. contents being mutually examined wer mainly conditions of teaching work, including teaching documents, whether implementation and reform of teaching content met the proper requirements and whether the questions in examinations were written scientifically and seriously. teacher's academic leels, attitudes of teaching, teaching methods and teaching results, students burden of study, study attitude and the ability for self-study. atitude test. 

through these mtuual examinations, the central problems in the education system in normal colleges and universities in the province were further revaled, and the main target of teh teching reform was primarily defined. Institutions were encouraged to learn from another. No quantitative stnadard, only qualitative. 

3. Appraisals of depts, specialities and quality of courses conducted at some universities

June 1983, appraisal of departments was imlemented at Zhejiang university as a test of selected point. Appraisal of specialities implemented internally in Shanghai Tongji U. Appraisal of ed work in depts East China Chemical Industrial College, focus on work of teaching and especially teaching of undergrads. Appraisal of course teaching quality was implemented in some particular departments of Beishida 1984, systems for appraisal standards of teaching quality in classes were made. Examination of teaching work in each semester was changed to course appraisal in XXX 1985. Appraisal of quality of teaching of courss was imlpemented throughout the whole school. Trial program for appraising quality of teaching was printed and dispatched to all departments and specialities as a formal teaching document in which four areas, teaching attitudes, content, methods and results, were used as basic factors.

-New development


entered new stage by "Decision on Reform of the Educational System by the CPC Central Committee" in May 1985. decision points out "the educational and intellectual sections and the employment units are to be organized to appraise the levels at which institutions of higher learning are run". MoE in June 1985, meeting on problems of appraisal of higher engineering education. In November 1985, State Education Commission: Circular on the Implementation on a Study and Experiment on Appraisals of Higher Engineering Education, with two appendixes of The standard System for Appraisals of the Educational Levels at which Higher Industrial Institutions are Run, and Measures to Enforce the Appraisal of the Educational Levels at Which Higher Industrial Institutions are Run. 

State Ed Com : relationship between appraisal by school, scoeity, andstate. In December 1985 another forum (State e dCom) on reform of teaching work in some comprehnsive uniersities, implementation of teaching appraisal was discussed. Tests to be conducted at Nanjing U, Fudan U, Wuhan U, ECNU, BNU. May 1986, State EdCom entrusted ECNU with convening working conference on appraisal of specialities and courses in HEI, colleges and Us proposed various programs and standard systems of appraisal for teaching of basic courses, ed quality of specialied courses, quality of teaching of courses and quality of specialized ed. 


The "Comprehensive Standard System of Appraisal for the Quality of Courses" drawn up collectively.


university teachers must study psychology pedagogics etc, before we thought knowledge of own field is enough - NO! 


MoE: Higher Education in China http://www.moe.edu.cn/english/higher_h.htm

The former SEdC launched the "Reform Plan of Teaching Contents and Curriculum of Higher Education Facing the 21st Century" in 1994, formally ratifying the establishment of 211 big projects and nearly a thousand sub-projects with tens of thousands teachers participating. This plan covers all areas of teaching such as teaching ideology, teaching contents, curriculum structure and teaching methodology. A advisory group for the reform of teaching contents and curriculum consisting of domestic famous experts from all disciplines has been set up.

1997, the National Teaching Achievements Awards organized and implemented by the former SEdC all together offered 422 State Awards.

7 The establishment of macro management system on quality of higher education made stable progress

  In 1993, the Department of Higher Education of former SEdC began to research the assessment plan and the practice of teaching assessment.

, the assessment of undergraduate teaching adheres to the principle of "promoting reform and establishment through assessment, combining assessment and establishment together with the emphasis laying on establishment".

There are three forms of assessment: the first is the pass level teaching assessment to the universities with comparatively weak basis and short history of undergraduate education?the second is the excellent level assessment to the universities with good basis, high teaching level and a comparatively long history of undergraduate education; and the last one is the random level assessment to the universities between pass level and excellent level.


Higher Education Evaluation Center (HEEC) was set up by the Ministry of Education. The Center implements assessment of the quality  of education in all higher education institutions in 5-year cycles. 


The Introduction of the Higher Education Evaluation Center of the Ministry of Education

eval every 5 years, full institution


first notice in English about TLCP:


Education ministry puts 151 national academic courses online

selected from 500 courses. plan to promote 1,500 in five years.


Chinese education in transition: Prelude to the cultural revolution. Julia Kwong

117 measures to raise academic standards great leap forwards 1958-> 


in attempt to improve quality of teaching, team teaching and collective efforts were encouraged among staff. experienced professors and teachers were given special responsibilities, asked to head groups of young teachers, supervise preparation of lesson plan, and train teachers in the field. 


Educational innovation in China: Tracing the impact of the 1985 reforms Lewin 1994

147 "The overriding characteristic of curriculum development in China since 1949 has been central control of a nationally unified teaching syllabus. What to teach in schools (educational objectives, content selection), when and how to long to teach it (timetabling), and, to a lesser extent, how to teach and evaluate sutudents, have all been the subject of detailed central guidelines." main methods: teaching syllabi and teaching programmes. Syllabi: directive, number of subjects, order, hours etc. Programme: directive, each subject has one. Objectives etc. Might only apply to K12.


Education in China since 1976, Xiufang Wang, 2003

169 "Teaching administration in the Chinese higher educational institutions is very different from that of Western universities and colleges." ... "However, regardless of the loftiness of a university's affiliation, the general teaching plan and teaching outline as well as teaching materials are set up by the Ministry of Education and its authorized related units."

170 teaching plan - comprehensive speciality curriculum guideline, training objectives, length of studies, teaching and studying requirements, teaching schedule, course arrangements, subject linkage, and teaching methods. guide profs decisions as they outline courses and select textbooks. from 1978-1984, MoE and other central ministries formulated, examined, approved and issued more than 200 teaching plans for 130 specialities. All public higher ed insts must follow teaching plans to recruit and educate students.

Teaching outline: every subject w/in teaching plan has its corresponding teaching outline spelling out national unified requirements. Three components:

- significance, objectives and requirements for setting up specific subject of teaching, principles of compiling textbooks, methodologies and salient questions to teaching

- teaching procedures, including all course content, key topics, class hours for each teaching unit, arrangements for required assignments, practicum and experiments

- reference materials, teaching tools, equipment, facilities

generally constructed by MoE or other authroized ministries. 


usually by universities or groups of experts come together from task from related universities. Teaching outline is also main criterion for evaluating quality of teaching.

Teaching materials:

Gov't officials also fully in charge of teaching materials. Textbook compiling and editing comission approves new material. 

184 instructional reform

5 aspects:

- improving textbook and curriculum structure

- constructing training bases

- adjusting list of specialities

- establishin assessment system of teaching and research work

- setting regulations governing awards for instructional achievement

in 1996: State Education Commission "project of improving text and curriculum structure to meet the challenge of the 21st century in higher education". training bases in key universities, let instructional reform in some key disciplines and some key universities and colleges be carrid a step further so bases will become models for facilitating even more advanced new practies. 

in 1995-1996 an experiment done in assessing model teaching work at unis and colleges. aim to put quality improvement efforts into key proets, successful. helped experimental universities and colleges pay more attention to the quality of taching and raised their management efficiency.

more satiscatory teaching awards have also been studied for their power to motivate teachers, administrators, and auxiliary staff members. "Regulations for the award for instructional achievement" State Council 1994. significantrole in motivating teachers to improve the quality of their teaching. 

moe 50 years (1949-99)dev'l of ch ed 353-374

1999 china ed yearbook 200-233


Chinese higher education, Ruiqing Du, 1992

urgent task to upgrade teaching staff, in 1987, only 12.6% have grad degrees, only 0.5% have PhD


introduction of mentor system whereby relatively young, inexperienced faculty members were regularly turoed and supervised in teaching and research (Yuan,1988). 

China's education reform in the 1980's: Suzanne Pepper

abolish class struggle with intellectuals

"In all other respects, the university system that was reestablished between 1977 and 1980 essentially replicated the antebellum model of the 1960s, which was essentially the same as the Sino-Soviet compromise variation that had emerged from the early 1950s pro-Soviet period. Hence, all of that system's centralized features abolished during the 1966-76 decade were restored. These included the national unified college entrance examinations, unified enrollment and job assignment plans, unified enrollment and job assignment plans, unified curricula, and systematized rules and regulations for everything." p 131

136 academic reforms; curriculum and teching plans

extreme decentralization in early 1970s, universitiesprepared their own curricula and teaching materia,s albeit on the basis of guidelines from above, the system was recentralized, standardized, and unified. Unified curricula specify which courses, compulsory and elective, for each major, sequence, number of hours. Syllabi further prescribe content of each course. 

137 credit systme imposted to create more flexbility ala US, but almost all courses obligatory

139 central plans more for reference. basic courses have to be taught, unified curriculum and teaching plans followed. necessary to maintain quality and content requirements (quote from administrators). 

Soviet Education for Science and Technology

209, 328

209 central control of education embodied in academic plans, est'd by Soviet Ministry of Higher Ed. academic calendar, curriculum, course schedule, course requirements in detail. first est'd in 1930's, 

329 syllabus, programma, highly detialed prescription of ingredients issues by Ministry for every lecture course in curricula. 

Tapestries of higher ed, Hayhoe, in Chinese Education problems policies and prospects Epstein

p 109 history of Chinese u - official schools, taixue Hanlin academy on one hand, shuyuan, freedom and scholarly inquiry from the bottom, on the other hand. cai yuanpei patriotic school, yenan unis, tradition from shuyuan, nonformal teaching and learning, free debate etc.

tendency by leaders to select foreign models .Japanese pattern early in century to preserve confcian. natioanlist leaders invited euoean paterns. selection of Soviet model in 1952 for total reorganization.

111 Cai Yuanpei Humboldt university as model of Beida 1917. American pragmatic approaches. broadening and opening up of higher curriculum from 1978-1988 that was more profound than any other period since the 1920-30s 

p 115 Reform document of 1985, most significant new freedom promised to universities in the reform document was much greater jurisdicion over their curricula. Universities were assured power to "redefine the goals of different specialities, draw up teaching plans and syllabi and compile and select teaching materials". dramatic change from a situation in which all teaching plans, course outlines and textbooks were nationally standardized, and universities were simply reponsible to see that these authroitative materials were faithfully transmitted to students in each of the many narrowly defined specializations.  (cit: reform of china's education structure: decision of the CPC committee, may 1985, beijing foreing language press, 13-18)

p 120 idea of keypoint or priority institutions first introduced in late fifities, in attempt to raise academic standards by strenghtening resources of institutions intended to exercise intellectual leadership. abolished during extreme populism of cultural revolution decade and reintroduced after 1978. 

p 125 each specialization nationally stanadrdized teaching plan, fixed by responsible bueau. by bureau in consulation with leading academics. detialed course outlines content of courses. knowledge boundaries extremely rigid.