China's Education and the Industrialized World

Soviet Influence on China's Higher Education, Leo A. Orleans

1950-52, 126 soviet consultants, assist in all phases. New specializations, establishment new curricula, new teaching plans. Development of basic plans and programs for all departments. 8-10,000 Soviet specialists sent to China 1950-1960. 1269 in education. More than 11,000 Chinese sent to USSR to stuy, helped train 19,000 Chinese instructors (of which 1,700 in USSR) cnsisting 1/4 of teaching personnel at Chinese colleges.

Between 1949 and 1955, over 20 million copies of 3,000 Soviet books on science and tech published in China. 2700 faculty members translating from Russian. 

1956 great leap forward, direct control of communist party, lot's of physical labor, all poltiics. Needed to shift from redness to expertness. Only had framework and curricula put in place in early 1950's with Soviet help. 

196: in 1950s "unofrum curricula and syllbi were regarded as inviolable legal documents to be enforced with the utmost care. Later on we came to know that the leading institutions in the Soviet Union enjoy far greater freedom in curriculum matters and in initiating reforms. our own folly in sticking to unfirom curricula and syllabi was largely due to our own ignorance." Guangming Ribao July 18 1984

Educational Modernization as a search for higher efficiency, Jürgen Henze 

in 1978-1979 general concern about more efficiency in education as anecessary prerequisite to developing the Chinese economy. technocratic approach vs Marxist moralism

"a Confucian tradition of grading and ranking the results of intellectual activities" - eval system for elementary and secndary schools, based in 1953-1957. 

quality vs equality, ch contemp educ