Cooperation or penetration, Hayhoe

China is being "reintegrated" into global political economy. Individual exchanges, individualized learning. Cooperative projects. 

Will reentry lead to conformity to est'd order, or NIEO?

dependency theory, persistence ofcolonial patterns. cultural loyalty of ruling elites. ed cooperation may be cultural penetration. but China not postcolonial. WOMP. 

p 538 Primary channel for Soviet penetration People's U, patterned after Moscow Planning Institute, first 8 depts : econ planning, finance and credit, trade, cooperatives, factory mgmt, law, diplomacy and Russian - reflect role in transferring techniques of Soviet-oriented socialist technocracy. Large concentration of Russian experts and advisors.

C T Hu, Chinese People's University, in Universities Facing the Future: World Yearbook of Education 1972-73


Between 1950-1967, 40,000 chinese students and workers trained abroad, of these, 90% in Soviet Union, most others in other communist countries. souce Chu-Yuan Cheng, Scientific and Engineering Manpower in Communist China, 1949-1963, p 196. 


Higher education in mainland China, C T Hu, CER 4(3)

p 164

by far the most important measure taken during the phase of consolidation was the unification of "teaching plans", introduction of a uniform curriculum. guiding principle: larning from advanced Soviet experience, Russian experts on all fronts. curriculum: some advised on general theories etc, others teaching positions, and in process of teaching helped with compilation of teaching plans, outlines and syllabi. Chinese educators to Russia. unquestioning faith in Soviet curriculum and pedagogy. 

p 165

latter part of 1954, ministry of HE series of conferneces, discussion, revision, final adoption of teaching plans or outlines for various fields of specialization. by 1957, more than thousand such plans. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Central Library of Beijing, systematic colection of Soviet textbooks as early as 1952. 3000 books acquired, often outdated. all out effort to translate into Chinese. 2700 individuals participated (faculty). 

in 1956 problems: degree of specialization, how to determine proportion of basic and specialized courses, whether a unified teaching plan is desirable, period of residence, teaching methods, total class hours

This was also in a period when education was mushrooming, great leap forward, p 162; 229 colleges and universities, and 444000 students in 1957, 1,408 coll/uni and 790000 students in 1958