notes from 2: Higher Ed Reforms in the Eighties, R Hayhoe China's Unis and the open door (1989)

higher ed in post cultural revolution period

searching for curricular reforms which will serve econ modernization, without pressing the issue of political democratization

new modes of curricular decision making 

new content, old patterns

organization in 1960's maintain Soviet contours: canonized disciplines, professional specializations, hierarchical sturcutre of bureaucracy, five year plans. separation of teaching and research, with maor research in CAS and CASS. 1965, 65% of students in applied sciences. theoretical human sciences 3.3%

Higher ed integrated into bureaucracy, HEI funded by central ministries as metallurgy, agriculture etc

{Hayhoe 1989}

control over all curricular content centralized within MoE. "Decision on Unifying Management in the Higher Education System", May 1963. unity of academic standards across the system. 

MoE full responsibility for preparing teaching plans for each specialization, teaching outlines for each course, textbooks that were nationally standard and binding on all institutions. fixed disciplines and narrowly defined specializations for which authoritative canons of true knowledge could be established. political control over knowledge.

The Sixty Articles of Higher Education, aims of HEI implement Comparty ed policy, train experts for soc'list construction. teaching primary task, research, productive labor and social activism subordinate. 

two documents revived with minor modifications in 1978 period. Structure and organization of knowledge in which European-Soviet patterns, superimposed on Chinese ones, gave illusion of modernity, but allowed no substantive transformation of HE to take place. structure of knowledge (hierarchical), differential prestige, then organization of knowledge using framing and classification. 

pure knowledge in Europe: theory, in China: applied by scholar-bureaucrats. 

teaching plan for each specialization contained four points: the purpose of formation in that specialization, the organization fo time, the structuring of all the required courses (no electives), and arrangement of teaching environment. 

four types of courses: common courses (political science, phys ed, prod labor, foreign lang), foundation courses in basic disciplines, specialist foundation courses and specialist courses. Each specialization was self-contained, with students given all insturction under its auspices, little contact with other specializations in same dept. 

teaching outline ordered knowledge content of each course, arranging material to be transmitted according to structure of discipline and according to ML theory. 

included: statement of aims and requirements for the course, list of importnat content areas in appropriate order, list of basic reference texts, and teaching guidelines. responsibility of MoE. assistance from academic subject committees, whose members profs at most prestigious institutions.

teachers were transmitters of authoritative knowledge determined elsewhere. each specialization had several teaching and research groups, jiaoyanzu, responsible for different levels of courses. research of methods to transmit knowledge as efficiently as possible. 

similar to French model, firm boundaries delimiting specializations, institutionally organized like old chair system. in China, depts existed, but main unit of curricular knowledge was the specialization. no discretion of the pacing or timing of the knowledge being transmitted was allowed to teachers. 

cultural revolution: 1967-1971 basically all shut down. then mostly zhuanke, very broad subjects

Dec 1978 plenum committee turning point for deng xiaoping. Resolution on certain questions in the history of our party since the founding of the PRC. June 1981. acknowledge Mao's cnetral role, while condemining ultraleftism. 

HE policy since 1978

1979 Central Com affirmed "Decision on Unifying Management of Higher Education". adding new specializations. control by MoE. al curricular decisions. Sixty articles revived. New emphasis on research, intellectuals greater freedom, part of working class, third uni prsidents greater power in internal admin, finally, political education redefined in more open way.

Decision on the Reform of th Education System, May 1985. 

two main resp of HEI: training advanced specialized personell, and dev'l science, tech and culture. restore research function

universities can admit students in collab with enterprises, or as fee-paying, also play greater role in job assignments. can participate in definition of the curriculum. "power to readjust the objectives of various disciplines, formulate teaching plans and programs, and compile and select teaching materials; the power to accept projects from and cooperate with other social establishments for scientific research and technological development, as well as setting up combines involving teaching, scientific research and production, the power to suggest appointments and removals, to dispose of capital construction investment and of funds allocated by the state, and the power to develop international educational and academic exchanged by using their own funds." (40 - Decision of the CPC cenral committee on the reform of the education system. p. K8.)

curricula to be refined and updated, greater element of practice to be introduced. teachers and academic departments considerable discretion over formulation of teaching plans and course outlines, selection of textbooks. students, partial electives, reduction of required course hours in favor of self-study, more sutdent initiative. 

The process of curricular decision making

w/in state educ commission, first and second depts of HE repsnsible for decision making across major fields of knowledge. engineering and agric, new list of specializations in 1983. each of 210 specializations preceded by jianjie: main purpose, principles and key required courses. within these general guidelines, each university has the freedom to create its own teaching plan and course outlines and to select the text and refeence books it wishes. same for agriculture forestry may 1986. 

The department sees its role as assisting in the development of a new and more precise definition of specializations in an approved list and regulating the establishment of new specializations throughout the system on the basis of general manpower needs, the regional situation, and the ability of particular institutions in terms of faculty and resources. Rather than producing autoritative teaching plans and outlines, they help to organize teaching material committees (jiaoyu ziliao hui?), that will develop new curricular materials. They nvisage prof assoc for major disciplines and specializations taking an incresingly active role in future curricular development.  (interview first dept 1985)

credit system, choose 30% of classes. reduction in class hours required. 

foreing  curricular materials and foreign educational systems in genreal are being intensively sutdied both by Chinese comp ed and by officials who have a more practical adn diect concern with curricular reform. state ed commission has an office responsible for the preparation of teaching materials, which makes great efforts ot obtain latest marerails from abroad. vetted, most valuable given to specialist research centers to be translated. soviet union, japan, germany and france, work of high qality, curricular materials used widely in centralized systems, given special attention.