China's Universities 1895-1995, A century of cultural conflict, R Hayhoe - 1996

3: The socialist story

1949-1957 early period of socialist construction

1958-1965 efforts to radicalize and sinify socialist vision

1966-1976 cultural revolution

SU for China represents the West, not the East.its educ trad rooted in European, notably France. Socialist construction - a gignatic machine with separate and highly specialized parts coordinated through central planning, intellectually close to 19th French rationalism.

university: symbol of autonomy and academic freedom

Chinese: intellectual authority and scholarly monopoly of bureaucratic power vs. fragile autonomy and intellectual freedom of shuyuan  and other nonformal institutions

knowledge map, geographical map and gneder map

redesign of geographical and knowledge map in 1950s. 

Common Program of the Chinese People's Consultative Conference, Speptember 1949, chapter 5, cultural educationa. patriotism, love of labor, love fo science. dev'l nat'l sciences in service of industry, application of sci/hist view to sutdy o fhist/ec/polit/cult/int'l affiars. etc

first HE conf June 1950. 227 HEI legacy of Nat'l govt, people's unis during Yan'an, Kangda etc. People's U as the center and prototype. Call for "careful curricular development" to the end of "serve the economis construction, which is the foundation for all other construction".  Cautious approach, credit system, support universities which had played a good role supporting liberals etc - university presidents also positive to integrate Marxist teachings. But shortlived. Closer and closer identification with Soviet Union. Away from self-relianze, and toward all-out emulation of Soviet patterns and practices - assistance of large number of Soviet experts as advisors to the various ministries. Identify with state confucian patterns. 

First five year plan 1953-1957 yuanxi tiaozheng: geographical raionalization, and rethinking of curricular patterns and institutional identities. Dismembering of comprehensive universities. idea was to link theory and practice, but in fact, theoretical biology for example was in a comprehensive, and had no connection with agriculture at a separate institution. 

unit of organization: whereas for the nationalist unis, org structure was at the level of the college, specialization at sub-dept level now became main organizing unit, each assigned specific quota of students etc. credit system terminated, in favor of uniform curricular requirements for each specialization. 

quickest and most efficient ways of developing courses were to translate teaching outlines and textbooks from Soviet Union. top-down manner, three or four leading institutions selected as centers. 67 SU eperts Harbin Polyctech, polytech ed. 98 Renda, rewriting soc science, BNU teacher ed.  (Mao Lirui, Shen Guanjun, Zhongguo Jiaoyu Tongshi, 89-113)

19 feb 1955, zhejiang normal, out of 153 courses, 41 were based on texts directly translated from the soviet union, other 79 developed based on Soviet models. 

impact of French higher ed on Russia. HE system that emerged in SU in 1930s very close in spirit to 19th C Fench pattern. 

Basil Bernstein: integrated code vs collection code (curriculum)

classification - strength of boundary maintenance between different specialist subjects or fields of knowledge in the curriculum

framing: pedagogical syle of eacher, and nature of relationship betw. teacher and student. 

collection code: strong classification stron gframing: French

strong classification weak framing: English

weak classification weak framing: US

Soviet: Strong classification and framing

specialization - faculty belonged to departments, but their work and lives organized within teaching and research groups, newly est'd on SU model 1950s. each group consisted of from five to wenty faculty, several groups responsible for different parts of the teaching done in a particular specialization. for example, one group for specialist courses, another for basic theory courses, third for specialist theory. students in specialization lived together, facutly too. 

1958  -great leap forward

more focus on grassroots, self-reliance, indigenous... schools of traditional Chinese medicine, new universities teaching science and technology side by side. greater research initiatives encouraged, links between HEIs and CAS. It was at this time that the principle of identifying priority or "keypoint" institutions was formally introduced as a mechanism for foestering excellence and concentrating resources on a certain numbre of leading institutions. 

suzanne pepper: china's ed reform in 1980's (Robarts LA1131.82 .P46 1990) - criticizes this concept. cambridge history of china, vol 14, 420-429. 

along with egalitarianism and emphasis on access, there needed to be measures to promote excellence!

local universities, comprehensive, absorb back some of the specialities, strong movememnt to develop more local curricular content, encourage universities to set up small facotires, involve them selves. students contributed to the writing of new textbooks and research projects, urge of local paritipation and a diversifaction of the curriculum, which allowed regional differences to find expression. students from top uinversities went to local institutoins in qinghai ningxia inner mongolia etc to set up. also some exiled.

1957-1960 HEI inst 229 -> 1289, enrollment doubled 

growth of nonformal or adult system of HE correspondence, evening courses at regular universitis, spare-time universities attached to SOE or rural communes. 400,000 stuents betwe 1962-1965. 

1960 rift between China and SOviet. 

cultural revolution - informal track "mentioned above" to take over, access to be given to all levels, workers, peasants etc. phenomenal growth in secondary education. the idea of full integration between the ed system and all aspects of social life - opposite of SU specialization. entrance by recommendation rather than by unified exam.