Rigid curriculum, then opening up, still want to manage, shift to evaluation. Peer-review. Competitions to promote excellence, put focus on teaching, and drive curriculum reform. See Norwegian equivalent in book. 

chinese higher ed massive expansion 1998-2008. 

concept of equality vs excellence.


In the case study of Lanzhou City University, it was mentioned that already before TLCP, the university had began giving out prices for best lecturers, and developed indicators for teaching quality. Vidovich, Yang and Currie (2007) contextualizes this in terms of the rise of accountability linked to internationalization of Chinese universities. Since the beginning of the 1990’s, teaching has been evaluated both by authorities external and internal to the university. Teaching audits, including teacher performance, portfolios, textbooks, student assignments, teaching records and examination papers, are conducted both by the central government, the provinces, and some cities. Within universities, students evaluate undergraduate teaching, and in some universities this feedback is made public. Senior university personnell, including faculty deans, often attend lectures unannounced to make observations. The rewards for good teaching are teaching awards, although the monetary amount is usually low. If a faculty member consistently receives poor teaching evaluations, senior teachers will sit in on his or her class and help him or her improve his or her teaching.