{Lewin, 147}

 "The overriding characteristic of curriculum development in China since 1949 has been central control of a nationally unified teaching syllabus. What to teach in schools (educational objectives, content selection), when and how to long to teach it (timetabling), and, to a lesser extent, how to teach and evaluate sutudents, have all been the subject of detailed central guidelines." main methods: teaching syllabi and teaching programmes. Syllabi: directive, number of subjects, order, hours etc. Programme: directive, each subject has one. Objectives etc. Might only apply to K12. 

Education in China since 1976, Xiufang Wang, 2003

169 "Teaching administration in the Chinese higher educational institutions is very different from that of Western universities and colleges." ... "However, regardless of the loftiness of a university's affiliation, the general teaching plan and teaching outline as well as teaching materials are set up by the Ministry of Education and its authorized related units."

170 teaching plan - comprehensive speciality curriculum guideline, training objectives, length of studies, teaching and studying requirements, teaching schedule, course arrangements, subject linkage, and teaching methods. guide profs decisions as they outline courses and select textbooks. from 1978-1984, MoE and other central ministries formulated, examined, approved and issued more than 200 teaching plans for 130 specialities. All public higher ed insts must follow teaching plans to recruit and educate students.

Teaching outline: every subject w/in teaching plan has its corresponding teaching outline spelling out national unified requirements. Three components:

- significance, objectives and requirements for setting up specific subject of teaching, principles of compiling textbooks, methodologies and salient questions to teaching

- teaching procedures, including all course content, key topics, class hours for each teaching unit, arrangements for required assignments, practicum and experiments

- reference materials, teaching tools, equipment, facilities

generally constructed by MoE or other authroized ministries. 


usually by universities or groups of experts come together from task from related universities. Teaching outline is also main criterion for evaluating quality of teaching.

Teaching materials:

Gov't officials also fully in charge of teaching materials. Textbook compiling and editing comission approves new material. 

China's education reform in the 1980's: Suzanne Pepper

abolish class struggle with intellectuals

"In all other respects, the university system that was reestablished between 1977 and 1980 essentially replicated the antebellum model of the 1960s, which was essentially the same as the Sino-Soviet compromise variation that had emerged from the early 1950s pro-Soviet period. Hence, all of that system's centralized features abolished during the 1966-76 decade were restored. These included the national unified college entrance examinations, unified enrollment and job assignment plans, unified enrollment and job assignment plans, unified curricula, and systematized rules and regulations for everything." p 131

In Russia:

Soviet Education for Science and Technology Korol 1957

209, 328

209 central control of education embodied in academic plans, est'd by Soviet Ministry of Higher Ed. academic calendar, curriculum, course schedule, course requirements in detail. first est'd in 1930's, 

329 syllabus, programma, highly detialed prescription of ingredients issues by Ministry for every lecture course in curricula. 

Tapestries of higher ed, Hayhoe, in Chinese Education problems policies and prospects Epstein

p 115 Reform document of 1985, most significant new freedom promised to universities in the reform document was much greater jurisdicion over their curricula. Universities were assured power to "redefine the goals of different specialities, draw up teaching plans and syllabi and compile and select teaching materials". dramatic change from a situation in which all teaching plans, course outlines and textbooks were nationally standardized, and universities were simply reponsible to see that these authroitative materials were faithfully transmitted to students in each of the many narrowly defined specializations.  (cit: reform of china's education structure: decision of the CPC committee, may 1985, beijing foreing language press, 13-18)

p 125 each specialization nationally stanadrdized teaching plan, fixed by responsible bueau. by bureau in consulation with leading academics. detialed course outlines content of courses. knowledge boundaries extremely rigid. 

{Hayhoe 1989}

control over all curricular content centralized within MoE. "Decision on Unifying Management in the Higher Education System", May 1963. unity of academic standards across the system. 

MoE full responsibility for preparing teaching plans for each specialization, teaching outlines for each course, textbooks that were nationally standard and binding on all institutions. fixed disciplines and narrowly defined specializations for which authoritative canons of true knowledge could be established. political control over knowledge.

teaching plan for each specialization contained four points: the purpose of formation in that specialization, the organization fo time, the structuring of all the required courses (no electives), and arrangement of teaching environment. 

teaching outline ordered knowledge content of each course, arranging material to be transmitted according to structure of discipline and according to ML theory. 

included: statement of aims and requirements for the course, list of importnat content areas in appropriate order, list of basic reference texts, and teaching guidelines. responsibility of MoE. assistance from academic subject committees, whose members profs at most prestigious institutions.

teachers were transmitters of authoritative knowledge determined elsewhere. each specialization had several teaching and research groups, jiaoyanzu, responsible for different levels of courses. research of methods to transmit knowledge as efficiently as possible. 

{Hayhoe 1996}

specialization - faculty belonged to departments, but their work and lives organized within teaching and research groups, newly est'd on SU model 1950s. each group consisted of from five to wenty faculty, several groups responsible for different parts of the teaching done in a particular specialization. for example, one group for specialist courses, another for basic theory courses, third for specialist theory. students in specialization lived together, facutly too.