Husen (1994) introduced three models
Humboldtian research university, research and teaching to interact from the very beginning.
British residential mdoel, close informal contact between students and professors.
French grandes ecoles, state-directed meritocratic society, Intellectually and socially elective, no research.
Both the German and the English based upon charisma, personal interaction, apprenticeship etc. French, goal-targetted, controlled, education.
Soviet also based on French (Gouzevitch 1995). Began with France as model in 1809 when they began introduction of technical hgiher ed.
Connected to epistemology:
“Within Soviet Communism, knowledge was seen as encyclopaedic, embracing all of the subject matter developed over human history. Thus the major subject disciplines developed in 19th century Europe were preserved in the curricula of secondary and tertiary institutions. “ (Hayhoe).
Anweiler, Oskar and Phillips, David(1985) 'Higher Education, the State and the Economy: Anglo- German variations on some topical themes', Oxford Review of Education, 11: 3, 221 — 226