In her book “Educational import”, Steiner-Khamsi and Stolpe (2006) discusses global educational policy borrowing through the lens of Mongolia. She shows how the government uses the language of modern Western innovations, but does not change its actual practices on the ground. Schriewer & Martinez (2004) have written perceptively about using “Ausland als Argument”, which can happen for various reasons. In many cases in Mongolia, the government had to adopt the language of the donors, and apply for funding for girl-child education, even if girls far outperformed boys in school already. In other settings, a government will refer to external examples to lend legitimacy to their policy decisions, in some cases even “borrowing policy” even though the practices are already being carried out locally.